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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:xiexiaoying.cn 点击:


如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心十分重要。可以说,正确选型是用好卧式加工中心的基础,是使卧式加工中心发挥出最大效率和效益的关键。卧式加工中心一次性投资大、技术复杂,同时种类、规格繁多,其价格、功能和精度又是一个对立的统一体,用户在选购时往往有不少疑问。

卧式加工中心

1我应该使用(yong)卧式加工中心吗?——加工工件特征

加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)类型(xing)的(de)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)定需(xu)要(yao)考虑加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)对象、加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺、加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)范(fan)围和设(she)备(bei)价格等(deng)因(yin)(yin)素,根据所选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)零件(jian)族 (组(zu))进(jin)行。如(ru)果您(nin)的(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)具有以下特征,则应选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin):加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)两面(mian)以上的(de)零件(jian)或加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)在(zai)四周呈径向(xiang)(xiang)辐射状(zhuang)排列的(de)孔系、面(mian),如(ru)箱体类、壳体类零件(jian)等(deng),应选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin);被加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零件(jian)的(de)位置精度要(yao)求(qiu)较(jiao)高(gao),宜选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用高(gao)精密卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin);零件(jian)在(zai)一次装夹中需(xu)要(yao)完成(cheng)多面(mian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时(shi),可选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)立卧(wo)复(fu)合(he)(he)式五(wu)面(mian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)。当然,上述各点(dian)也不是绝对的(de),一方面(mian)是由于加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)正(zheng)朝(chao)着复(fu)合(he)(he)化方向(xiang)(xiang)发(fa)展,另(ling)一方面(mian)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)型(xing)时(shi)要(yao)综合(he)(he)考虑生产效率、加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺要(yao)求(qiu)和设(she)备(bei)资金等(deng)因(yin)(yin)素,要(yao)以性价比来衡量选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)型(xing)方案的(de)合(he)(he)理性。

建议:采购用户需(xu)要根(gen)据加(jia)(jia)工(gong)对象(xiang)、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)工(gong)艺、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)范围(wei)等特(te)征来确定是否使用卧式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心以及使用什么样(yang)的卧式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心。

2我需要选用什么规格的卧式加工中心?——主要规格的选定

(1)工作台尺(chi)寸

这是(shi)卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)(shi)加工中(zhong)心的(de)(de)主(zhu)参(can)数(shu)(shu),主(zhu)要取决于典型(xing)零(ling)件(jian)的(de)(de)外廓(kuo)尺(chi)寸(cun)、装(zhuang)夹方式(shi)(shi)(shi)等。应(ying)选择(ze)比典型(xing)零(ling)件(jian)外廓(kuo)尺(chi)寸(cun)稍大一些(xie)的(de)(de)工作台,以(yi)便留出安装(zhuang)夹具所需的(de)(de)空(kong)间,保证(zheng)零(ling)件(jian)在(zai)其上面能够顺利(li)装(zhuang)夹,此外还应(ying)考虑(lv)工作台的(de)(de)承载能力(li)、T形槽数(shu)(shu)量和尺(chi)寸(cun)等,小尺(chi)寸(cun)的(de)(de)比较通用,比如(ru)站内的(de)(de)卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)(shi)加工中(zhong)心MH-630A、MH-800A、MH-500A、LH-630B等。

建议(yi):目前市(shi)场上的卧(wo)式(shi)加工(gong)中心工(gong)作台尺寸多(duo)为1000以下的,能够(gou)满足大多(duo)数用户的需(xu)求。

(2)坐标轴行程(cheng)

最基(ji)本的(de)坐标轴(zhou)是X、Y、Z三轴(zhou),其行程(cheng)和工(gong)(gong)作台(tai)尺寸(cun)(cun)有相(xiang)应(ying)的(de)比例关系,工(gong)(gong)作台(tai)面(mian)的(de)大(da)小基(ji)本上确定了加工(gong)(gong)空(kong)间的(de)大(da)小。如(ru)(ru)个(ge)别零件(jian)的(de)尺寸(cun)(cun)大(da)于卧式加工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)行程(cheng)时,则必须(xu)要求零件(jian)的(de)加工(gong)(gong)区域处于机(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)行程(cheng)范围之内,此外还要考虑(lv)(lv)零件(jian)是否与(yu)机(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)交换刀具的(de)空(kong)间干(gan)涉(she)、与(yu)机(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)防护罩等附件(jian)发(fa)生干(gan)涉(she)等系列(lie)问(wen)题。而对(dui)需要多轴(zhou)联动(dong)加工(gong)(gong)的(de)卧式加工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin) (如(ru)(ru)增加回转坐标A、B、C或附加坐标U、V、W),如(ru)(ru)四轴(zhou)、五轴(zhou)联动(dong)卧式加工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin),这就需要特殊(shu)订货,同时必须(xu)对(dui)相(xiang)应(ying)配套的(de)编程(cheng)软件(jian)、测(ce)量(liang)手段以(yi)及机(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)价格等有全(quan)面(mian)的(de)考虑(lv)(lv)和安排。

建议:采购(gou)用户需要(yao)根(gen)据(ju)加工工件规格选择不(bu)同坐标轴行程的卧式加工中心,多轴联动(dong)需要(yao)特殊定制。

(3)主轴(zhou)电(dian)动(dong)机功率与转(zhuan)矩

它反映了卧式加(jia)工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)的(de)(de)切削效率(lv)(lv),也(ye)从一个侧(ce)面反映了卧式加(jia)工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)的(de)(de)切削刚(gang)性和机床整体刚(gang)度。主(zhu)轴电(dian)动机功率(lv)(lv)在同类规(gui)格(ge)的(de)(de)卧式加(jia)工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)上可以(yi)有(you)各种不同的(de)(de)配置,同类规(gui)格(ge)的(de)(de)主(zhu)轴转速不同的(de)(de)卧式加(jia)工中(zhong)心(xin)(xin),主(zhu)轴电(dian)动机功率(lv)(lv)可以(yi)相差很大。

建议:采购用户应根据自身典型零(ling)件毛坯余量大小、切削能力 (单位时间(jian)金属切削量)、要求达到的(de)(de)加(jia)工精度(du)、实际能配置的(de)(de)刀具等因素综合选择(ze)。

(4)主轴转(zhuan)速与(yu)进给速度

需(xu)要高速(su)(su)(su)切(qie)削或超低速(su)(su)(su)切(qie)削时,应(ying)关注主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)的转速(su)(su)(su)范围。特别是高速(su)(su)(su)切(qie)削时,既要有(you)高的主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)转速(su)(su)(su),同时也要具备与主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)转速(su)(su)(su)相匹配(pei)的进给速(su)(su)(su)度。目前卧式(shi)加工中(zhong)心(xin)高速(su)(su)(su)化趋势发展(zhan)很(hen)快(kuai),主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)从(cong)每分(fen)钟几(ji)千转到几(ji)万转,直线(xian)(xian)坐标快(kuai)速(su)(su)(su)移动(dong)(dong)速(su)(su)(su)度从(cong)10—20/min上(shang)(shang)升到80m/min以上(shang)(shang),当然其(qi)功能部件如电主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)、直线(xian)(xian)电动(dong)(dong)机、直线(xian)(xian)滚动(dong)(dong)导(dao)轨、主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)承等(deng)及相配(pei)套的光栅尺、刀具等(deng)附件价格也都(dou)相应(ying)上(shang)(shang)升,甚至很(hen)昂贵。

建议:采(cai)购(gou)用户必(bi)须根据自身的(de)技术能力和(he)配套能力合(he)理作出(chu)卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)的(de)合(he)理选型。

(5)刀库容量

可(ke)以根据被加工(gong)(gong)(gong)零件的工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺分析结果来确(que)定所(suo)需数量,通常以典型零件在(zai)一次(ci)装夹(jia)中所(suo)需刀具(ju)数量来确(que)定刀库的容量,卧(wo)式加工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)以选用(yong)40把刀左右(you)的刀库为宜。同时要关(guan)注最大刀具(ju)直径与长度以及最大刀具(ju)重量等。用(yong)于FMC或FMS的卧(wo)式加工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin),应选择(ze)大容量刀库,甚(shen)至配置可(ke)交换刀库。

建议:普通卧式(shi)加工中心选(xuan)择(ze)40把刀左右的刀库即够用,用于FMC或FMS的卧式(shi)加工中心应(ying)选(xuan)择(ze)大容量刀库。

3我(wo)需要(yao)选用什(shen)么精(jing)度(du)的卧式加工(gong)中心?——精(jing)度(du)的选定

加工中(zhong)心的精(jing)度(du)等级(ji)主要根据典型零件关键部位(wei)(wei)(wei)的精(jing)度(du)来确定(ding)(ding)。其精(jing)度(du)主要包(bao)括定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)精(jing)度(du)、重(zhong)复定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)精(jing)度(du)和铣圆精(jing)度(du),特别是(shi)(shi)(shi)重(zhong)复定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)精(jing)度(du),它反映了坐标(biao)(biao)(biao)轴(zhou)的定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)稳定(ding)(ding)性,是(shi)(shi)(shi)衡量该轴(zhou)是(shi)(shi)(shi)否稳定(ding)(ding)可(ke)靠工作(zuo)的基本(ben)(ben)指标(biao)(biao)(biao)。特别值得(de)注意(yi)的是(shi)(shi)(shi),选(xuan)型订货(huo)时必须全(quan)面分析,不(bu)能简单地看产(chan)品样(yang)(yang)本(ben)(ben)所列的精(jing)度(du)数值,因为标(biao)(biao)(biao)准不(bu)同(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)、规定(ding)(ding)数值不(bu)同(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)、检测方(fang)法不(bu)同(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong),数值的含义就不(bu)同(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)。刊物、样(yang)(yang)本(ben)(ben)、合(he)格证所列出的单位(wei)(wei)(wei)长度(du)上允许的正负值(一(yi)般为正负0.05)常常是(shi)(shi)(shi)不(bu)明确的,订货(huo)时要特别注意(yi),一(yi)定(ding)(ding)要弄清是(shi)(shi)(shi)IOS(国(guo)际标(biao)(biao)(biao)准化组织标(biao)(biao)(biao)准)、VDI(德国(guo)标(biao)(biao)(biao)准)、JIS(日本(ben)(ben)标(biao)(biao)(biao)准)、NMTBA(美国(guo)机床制(zhi)造(zao)商(shang)协会标(biao)(biao)(biao)准)还(hai)是(shi)(shi)(shi)NAS(美国(guo)标(biao)(biao)(biao)准)及GB(中(zhong)国(guo)标(biao)(biao)(biao)准)等,进而分析各(ge)种不(bu)同(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)标(biao)(biao)(biao)准所规定(ding)(ding)的检测计算方(fang)法和检测环(huan)境条件,才不(bu)会产(chan)生误解。

铣(xian)圆精(jing)度是(shi)综合(he)评价(jia)卧式(shi)加工中(zhong)心有关数(shu)控轴的伺(si)服(fu)跟随运(yun)动特(te)性和数(shu)控系统插补功(gong)能(neng)的主(zhu)要指标之一。不论典型(xing)零(ling)件(jian)是(shi)否有此需要,为了(le)将(jiang)来可能(neng)的需要及(ji)更好地控制精(jing)度,必须(xu)重视这一指标。

要(yao)特(te)别注意区别加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)精度与机床精度两个(ge)不(bu)同的(de)(de)(de)概念。将生产(chan)厂家样本(ben)(ben)上或产(chan)品合(he)格(ge)(ge)证上的(de)(de)(de)位置精度当作(zuo)卧式加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)精度是错误(wu)的(de)(de)(de)。样本(ben)(ben)或合(he)格(ge)(ge)证上标明的(de)(de)(de)位置精度是加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心本(ben)(ben)身(shen)的(de)(de)(de)精度,而加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)精度是包括卧式加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心本(ben)(ben)身(shen)所允许误(wu)差(cha)在内的(de)(de)(de)整个(ge)工(gong)(gong)艺系(xi)统(tong)各(ge)种因素所产(chan)生的(de)(de)(de)误(wu)差(cha)总和。整个(ge)工(gong)(gong)艺系(xi)统(tong)误(wu)差(cha)产(chan)生的(de)(de)(de)原因是很复杂(za)的(de)(de)(de),很难用(yong)线(xian)性关(guan)系(xi)定量(liang)表达。选(xuan)型时,可(ke)参考工(gong)(gong)序能力(li)系(xi)数Cp的(de)(de)(de)评定方法(fa)来(lai)作(zuo)为机床加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)精度的(de)(de)(de)选(xuan)型依据。一(yi)般而言,Cp应大于(yu)1.33。

站内高精(jing)密的几款卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心:MH-630B、LH-300A、MH-500B、TH500动(dong)柱(zhu)式卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心性能都不错。

建(jian)议:采购用户在挑选(xuan)不同(tong)精(jing)度的(de)卧式加(jia)工中心时(shi),需要(yao)考虑:不同(tong)标准对应的(de)单(dan)位长度含义;重视铣圆精(jing)度指(zhi)标;区别加(jia)工精(jing)度和机床精(jing)度。

4我应该(gai)选择(ze)哪种数控系统?——数控系统的选定

数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)功能(neng)(neng)分(fen)为(wei)基(ji)本功能(neng)(neng)与(yu)选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)(ze)功能(neng)(neng),可(ke)以从操作(zuo)方(fang)式(shi)(shi)(shi)、用户功能(neng)(neng)、控(kong)(kong)(kong)制方(fang)式(shi)(shi)(shi)、驱动形(xing)(xing)式(shi)(shi)(shi)、反馈形(xing)(xing)式(shi)(shi)(shi)、接(jie)口(kou)形(xing)(xing)式(shi)(shi)(shi)、检测(ce)与(yu)测(ce)量、报警与(yu)提示、故障诊断等(deng)方(fang)面综合(he)衡量。基(ji)本功能(neng)(neng)是必须(xu)提供的(de)(de),而只有(you)当(dang)用户选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)(ze)了选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)(ze)功能(neng)(neng)后,厂家(jia)才会另(ling)行(xing)提供并另(ling)行(xing)加价(jia),且定(ding)(ding)价(jia)一般较高。总体(ti)而言,数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)功能(neng)(neng)一定(ding)(ding)要(yao)根据(ju)加工中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)的(de)(de)性(xing)能(neng)(neng)需要(yao)来选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)(ze),订购时(shi)既(ji)要(yao)把需要(yao)的(de)(de)功能(neng)(neng)订全,不(bu)能(neng)(neng)遗漏,同(tong)时(shi)避免使(shi)用率(lv)不(bu)高而造(zao)成(cheng)浪(lang)费,还需注意各功能(neng)(neng)之间的(de)(de)关联性(xing)。另(ling)一方(fang)面,在可(ke)供选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)(ze)的(de)(de)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)中(zhong)(zhong),如(ru)SIEMENS系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)、FANUC系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)、国产(chan)华中(zhong)(zhong)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)等(deng),性(xing)能(neng)(neng)高低(di)差(cha)别(bie)很大,价(jia)格亦相差(cha)很大,进口(kou)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)或(huo)国产(chan)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)亦决(jue)定(ding)(ding)其价(jia)格的(de)(de)高低(di)。总体(ti)上来看,法兰(lan)克(ke)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)性(xing)价(jia)比(bi)(bi)(bi)比(bi)(bi)(bi)较高,国内(nei)卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)(shi)加工中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)使(shi)用比(bi)(bi)(bi)例比(bi)(bi)(bi)较高。站(zhan)内(nei)卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)(shi)加工中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)使(shi)用法兰(lan)克(ke)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)也比(bi)(bi)(bi)较多(duo),比(bi)(bi)(bi)如(ru)MH-800B 、 LH-500B都(dou)是比(bi)(bi)(bi)较好的(de)(de)选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)(ze)。多(duo)台卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)(shi)加工中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)选(xuan)(xuan)型时(shi),应(ying)尽可(ke)能(neng)(neng)选(xuan)(xuan)用同(tong)一厂家(jia)的(de)(de)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong),这样(yang)操作(zuo)、编(bian)程、维修都(dou)比(bi)(bi)(bi)较方(fang)便。

建议:法兰克数控系统性价比比较高,多台卧式加工中心选型尽量选用同一厂家的数控系统。

5我需要(yao)(yao)选择几(ji)台卧(wo)式加(jia)工中心能(neng)达到(dao)的(de)(de)我的(de)(de)产量要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)?——生产能(neng)力的(de)(de)估算

选(xuan)(xuan)型时,必须要考虑(lv)(lv)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)能达到的(de)(de)生(sheng)产(chan)能力,即要求(qiu)选(xuan)(xuan)定(ding)的(de)(de)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)在一(yi)年之内能加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)几种(zhong)典(dian)型零(ling)(ling)件(jian)、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)出多少数(shu)量(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)零(ling)(ling)件(jian)。要得到这些数(shu)据(ju)必须对每(mei)(mei)一(yi)种(zhong)确(que)定(ding)的(de)(de)典(dian)型零(ling)(ling)件(jian)进(jin)行(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时和生(sheng)产(chan)节拍(pai)的(de)(de)估算(suan)。一(yi)般步(bu)骤为:首(shou)先(xian),根据(ju)已选(xuan)(xuan)定(ding)的(de)(de)典(dian)型零(ling)(ling)件(jian)进(jin)行(xing)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺分(fen)析,初步(bu)确(que)定(ding)一(yi)条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺路线,在这条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺路线中(zhong)(zhong)选(xuan)(xuan)出准备在卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)上加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu);第二,根据(ju)现用的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺参数(shu),估算(suan)出每(mei)(mei)道(dao)在卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)上加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)单个工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)时间;第三(san),由每(mei)(mei)个单工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)时间计(ji)(ji)算(suan)出选(xuan)(xuan)定(ding)零(ling)(ling)件(jian)在卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)上加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)总时间,进(jin)而计(ji)(ji)算(suan)出年产(chan)量(liang)(liang)即生(sheng)产(chan)能力。如果估算(suan)结果达不到目(mu)标(biao)值,但相差(cha)不大(da),则(ze)可以通过修(xiu)改工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺参数(shu)的(de)(de)方(fang)法加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)以调整;如果相差(cha)很大(da),则(ze)应考虑(lv)(lv)增加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)台数(shu)的(de)(de)配(pei)置(zhi)。

建议:采(cai)购用户需要根据工件加工工时(shi)和生产(chan)节拍的(de)估算,决定卧式(shi)加工中心配备台数。

6卧式加工中心有好多选(xuan)配的附件我(wo)应该如何选(xuan)配?——其他功能部件及附件的选(xuan)定

(1)坐标轴数和联动轴数

坐标(biao)(biao)轴(zhou)数和联动(dong)轴(zhou)数均(jun)应满足典(dian)型零件加工(gong)要(yao)求(qiu)。一(yi)般情(qing)况下(xia),同厂家、同规格、同等(deng)精度的卧式加工(gong)中(zhong)心,增加一(yi)个标(biao)(biao)准坐标(biao)(biao)轴(zhou),价(jia)格约(yue)增加30%—50%。尽管增加坐标(biao)(biao)轴(zhou)数可(ke)以强化加工(gong)中(zhong)心的功能,是(shi)(shi)机床上档次的标(biao)(biao)志之一(yi),但最(zui)终(zhong)还是(shi)(shi)要(yao)在工(gong)艺要(yao)求(qiu)和资(zi)金条(tiao)件下(xia)平衡决定。

(2)工(gong)作台(tai)

卧式加工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)可配置(zhi)(zhi)用于分度的回转工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)台(tai)(tai)和(he)数(shu)控回转工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)台(tai)(tai),后者能够实现任意(yi)分度,作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)为(wei)B轴与其他轴联动控制。回转工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)(zuo)台(tai)(tai)配置(zhi)(zhi)与否以(yi)及如何(he)配置(zhi)(zhi)必(bi)须以(yi)实际需要(yao)来确定,以(yi)经济、实用为(wei)目的。

(3)自动换刀装置 (ATC)

ATC的(de)选择主要考虑换刀时(shi)间与(yu)可靠(kao)性(xing)。过(guo)分强调换刀时(shi)间会使加(jia)工(gong)中心的(de)价格大幅度提(ti)高并使故(gu)障(zhang)率(lv)上(shang)升。据统计,加(jia)工(gong)中心的(de)故(gu)障(zhang)中约有(you)50%与(yu)ATC有(you)关,因此(ci),在满(man)足使用要求的(de)前(qian)提(ti)下,尽量(liang)选用可靠(kao)性(xing)高的(de)ATC,以(yi)降低(di)故(gu)障(zhang)率(lv)和(he)整机成本

(4)必要的(de)附(fu)件(jian)、配(pei)套件(jian)

选(xuan)(xuan)型时,还应注意选(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)(yong)一(yi)些配(pei)套件(jian)(jian)及附(fu)件(jian)(jian),尽(jin)量(liang)(liang)避免因缺(que)少一(yi)个几万元(yuan)就能购买的(de)(de)(de)附(fu)件(jian)(jian)而影响(xiang)卧(wo)(wo)(wo)式(shi)(shi)加工中心(xin)的(de)(de)(de)正常运(yun)行(xing)。慎重(zhong)选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)(ze)刀柄和刀具也是保证卧(wo)(wo)(wo)式(shi)(shi)加工中心(xin)正常运(yun)行(xing)的(de)(de)(de)关键(jian),最佳的(de)(de)(de)选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)(ze)办法(fa)应是根据(ju)典型零件(jian)(jian)所(suo)需的(de)(de)(de)品(pin)种和数量(liang)(liang)来确定,并在使用(yong)(yong)中陆续添(tian)置(zhi)。在卧(wo)(wo)(wo)式(shi)(shi)加工中心(xin)的(de)(de)(de)构成中,排屑装置(zhi)、防护装置(zhi)和对(dui)刀装置(zhi) (如(ru)刀具预调仪)等均是必(bi)需的(de)(de)(de),对(dui)一(yi)些尽(jin)管不是必(bi)需的(de)(de)(de)配(pei)套件(jian)(jian),但如(ru)果价格不高,对(dui)使用(yong)(yong)带来很多方便,也应尽(jin)量(liang)(liang)选(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)(yong),如(ru)附(fu)件(jian)(jian)铣头、储刀料(liao)架、运(yun)刀具车、装卸器等。

建议:配件越高,能实现的功能越多,但价格也越贵,采购用户需要根(gen)据(ju)加工需求酌情选配。

7卧式(shi)加工中(zhong)心选(xuan)型时还有什么其他需要注意(yi)的?——需要注意(yi)的一些问题

(1)结(jie)构设(she)计

加工中(zhong)心对其(qi)床身、立柱、工作(zuo)台、主轴以(yi)及刀库等功能(neng)部件的结(jie)构(gou)设计有着(zhe)很高(gao)(gao)的要(yao)(yao)求,以(yi)达到其(qi)高(gao)(gao)强(qiang)度、高(gao)(gao)刚度、高(gao)(gao)抗振性和稳定性的目的。选型时,应(ying)特(te)别(bie)注意(yi)把其(qi)结(jie)构(gou)作(zuo)为一(yi)项重要(yao)(yao)的具体(ti)内(nei)容来进行要(yao)(yao)求与考虑。

(2)功能与(yu)加工的适应性(xing)

虽然(ran)加工中心可以(yi)进行钻、扩、铣(xian)、镗、铰、攻螺纹(wen)乃至车削(xue) (如车铣(xian)复(fu)合加工中心)等(deng)多种加工,但是在具体(ti)(ti)选择时(shi),还(hai)应根据(ju)具体(ti)(ti)需要来考虑(lv)机床的(de)功能(neng)与加工是否相适应等(deng)问题。要注意(yi)以(yi)下几点:

A、复(fu)杂曲(qu)线加工时,要(yao)考虑CNC是否有(you)(you)所(suo)需(xu)要(yao)的曲(qu)线插补功能,或选择(ze)(ze)什(shen)么方式逼近加工曲(qu)线并保证所(suo)要(yao)求的表面(mian)粗糙度。三(san)维加工时,要(yao)考虑选择(ze)(ze)适合的刀具结构(gou),还要(yao)考虑程(cheng)序编(bian)制(zhi)能力,如有(you)(you)必要(yao)则必须配备自动(dong)编(bian)程(cheng)装置或后置处(chu)理编(bian)程(cheng)装置。

B、需要(yao)进行螺(luo)(luo)纹(wen)(wen)切(qie)削(xue) (非攻螺(luo)(luo)纹(wen)(wen)方式(shi))时,不仅要(yao)看是否(fou)有螺(luo)(luo)纹(wen)(wen)切(qie)削(xue)功能(neng)(neng)、螺(luo)(luo)旋(xuan)线插(cha)补功能(neng)(neng)和主(zhu)轴转动与进给(ji)同步功能(neng)(neng),还要(yao)考虑机(ji)床是否(fou)有径向(xiang)进给(ji)装置、是否(fou)有主(zhu)轴在旋(xuan)转方向(xiang)上任意角度(du)位置准确定位功能(neng)(neng)。否(fou)则,仅在数控系统中用了(le)螺(luo)(luo)纹(wen)(wen)切(qie)削(xue)功能(neng)(neng)仍然无法进行螺(luo)(luo)纹(wen)(wen)切(qie)削(xue)C、采用金刚铰、浮动镗和挤压(ya)加工等特种(zhong)加工时,既要(yao)考虑适(shi)宜的(de)自动换刀(dao)的(de)条件,又要(yao)考虑选择合(he)适(shi)的(de)刀(dao)具结(jie)构和切(qie)削(xue)用量,应尽可能(neng)(neng)在购买主(zhu)机(ji)时一并购置部(bu)分(fen)易损部(bu)件及其他附件等。

D、如果(guo)有(you)应用DNC、FMS、CIMS等(deng)的规划,或要进行网络制造,则要注意通信功(gong)能,应选择具有(you)RS—232、RS—485甚(shen)至(zhi)MAP网络通信、CAN总线等(deng)接口的系(xi)统。

(3)运转(zhuan)的(de)可靠性

卧式加工中心运转的可靠性决定了其质量好坏。数控系统由于某一块插件板故障造成停机数月的现象屡见不鲜,一个传感器失效造成机床丧失部分功能的现象也多有发生。所以在选型过程中,应采取对老用户进行走访等方式,更多一些了解所选卧式加工中心的使用情况。

建议(yi):采购用(yong)户(hu)在选(xuan)型时(shi),需(xu)要对卧式加工中心(xin)整(zheng)体的结(jie)构(gou)设(she)计、可靠性以及价加工适应性有客观的认识。


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